Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) biofilm





Nair ZJ, Gao IH, Firras A, Chong KKL, Hill E D, Choo PY, Colomer-Winter C, Chen Q, Manzano C, Pethe K, Kline KA

An essential protease, FtsH, influences daptomycin resistance acquisition in Enterococcus faecalis. Molecular microbiology,10.1111/mmi.15253.


  Celik C, Lee SYT, Tanoto FR, Veleba M, Kline KA, Thibault.

Decoding the complexity of delayed wound healing following Enterococcus faecalis infection. 




Tan CAZ, Chong KKL, Yu YXD, Ng CHM, Ismail MH, Tay VS, Yusuf A, Kline KA

Purine and carbohydrate availability drive Enterococcus faecalis fitness during wound infection. MBio, 0(0), e02384-02323. doi:doi:10.1128/mbio.02384-23



Yong AMH, Winter CC, Chong KKL, Gao IH, Matysik A, Chen SL, Kline KA.

The HtrA chaperone monitors sortase-assembled pilus biogenesis in Enterococcus faecalis.




  Kao PHN, Ch’ng JH, Chong KKL, Stocks CJ, Wong SL, Kline KA.

Enterococcus faecalis suppresses Staphylococcus aureus-induced NETosis and promotes bacterial survival in polymicrobial infections. FEMS Microbes. doi:10.1093/femsmc/xtad019







Lee WL, Sinha A, Lam LN, Loo HL, Liang J, Ho P, Cui L, Chan CSC, Begley T, Kline, KA, Dedon P.

An RNA modification enzyme directly senses reactive oxygen species for translational regulation in Enterococcus faecalis.







Rashid R, Nair ZJ, Chia DMH, Chong KKL, Cazenave Gassiot A, Morley SA, Allen DK, Chen SL, Chng SS, Wenk MR, Kline KA.

Depleting Cationic Lipids Involved in Antimicrobial Resistance Drives Adaptive Lipid Remodeling in Enterococcus faecalis. mBio. 2023 Jan 11:e0307322




da Silva RAG, Wong JJ, Antypas H, Choo PY, Goh K, Jolly S, Liang C, Tay Kwan Sing L, Veleba M, Hu G, Chen J, Kline KA.

Mitoxantrone targets both host and bacteria to overcome vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Science Advances. Vol. 9, Issue. 8.





   Choo PY, Yang CW, VanNieuwenhze MS, Kline KA.

Spatial and temporal surface deposition of sortase-assembled pili in Enterococcus faecalis. Molecular Microbiology Vol. 118, No. 5




Wong JJ, Ho FK, Choo PY, Chong KLC, Ho BCM, Neelakandan R, Keogh D, Barkham T, Chen J, Liu CF, Kline KA.

Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY regulates the pks island and kills Staphylococci via the genotoxin colibactin during interspecies competition. PLoS Pathog. 2022 Sep 6;18(9):e1010766.



Tan CAZ, Lam LN, Biukovic G, Soh EY-C, Toh XW, Lemos JA, Kline KA.

Enterococcus faecalis Antagonizes Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth in Mixed-Species Interactions. Journal of Bacteriology Vol. 204, No. 7



Volume 16 Issue 4

Ch’ng JH, Muthu M, Chong KKL, Wong JJ, Tan CAZ, Koh ZJS, Lopez D,
Matysik A, Nair ZJ, Barkham T, Wang Y, Kline KA.

Heme cross-feeding can augment Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis dual species biofilms. The ISME Journal Vol. 16





da Silva RAG, Tay WH, Ho FK, Tanoto FR, Chong KKL, Choo PY,
Ludwig A, Kline KA

Enterococcus faecalis alters endo-lysosomal trafficking to replicate and persist within mammalian cells



Madden L, Low SH, Phillips ARJ, Kline KA, Becker DL.

The effects of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm conditioned media on 3T3 fibroblasts. FEMS Microbes. Volume 2, xtab010.


da Silva RAG, Afonina I, Kline KA.

Eradicating Biofilm Infections: An Update on Current and Prospective Approaches. Current Opinion in Microbiology. Oct;63:117-125.


Afonina I, Tien B, Nair Z, Matysik A, Lam LN, Veleba M, Koh A, Rashid R, Cazenave-Gassiot A, Wenk M, Nyunt Wai S, Kline KA.

The composition and function of Enterococcus faecalis membrane vesicles.


Low JL, Kao PH, Tambyah PA, Koh GLE, Kline KA, Cheow WS, Leong SSJ.

Development of a polymer-based antimicrobial coating for efficacious catheter protection. Biotechnology Notes. Volume 2:1-10.



Afonina I, Ong J, Chua J, Lu T, Kline KA.

Multiplex CRISPRi system enables the study of stage-specific biofilm genetic requirements in Enterococcus faecalis. mBio 11:e01101-20.


Jai HS, Tay LS, Koh JJW, Dam LC, Loo HN, Kline KA, Goh BC.

Engineered lysins with customized lytic activities against enterococci and staphylococci. Frontiers in Microbiology. 25 November 2020.


Papadimitriou K, Kline KA, Renault P, Kok J.

Omics and systems approaches to study the biology and applications of lactic acid bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology. 20 August 2020







Bottomley AL, Peterson E, Iosifidis G, Yong AMH, Hartley-Tassell L, Ansari S, McKenzie C, Burke C,. Duggin IG, Kline KA, Harry EJ.

The novel E. coli cell division protein, YtfB, plays a role in eukaryotic cell adhesion. Scientific Reports 10:6745


Lam LN, Wong JJ, Kelvin KKL, Kline KA.

Enterococcus faecalis manganese exporter MntE alleviates manganese toxicity and is required for mouse gastrointestinal colonization.
Infect Immun 88:e00058-20.


Thappeta KR, Vikhe YS, Yong AMH, Chan Park MB, Kline KA.

Combined efficacy of a novel antimicrobial cationic peptide polymer with conventional antibiotics to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens.
ACS Infectious Disease. 6, 5, 1228–1237.



Chilambi GS, Hinks J,  Matysik A, Lui X, Choo PY, Ravikumar V, Chan-Park MB, Bazan GC, Kline KA*, Rice SA*. *Corresponding authors.

Enterococcus faecalis adapts to conjugated oligoelectrolytes by lipid rearrangement and differential expression of membrane stress response genes. Frontiers in Microbiology: 14 February 2020


Go to journal home page - Current Opinion in Microbiology
Tan CAZ, Antypas H, Kline KA.
Overcoming the challenge of establishing biofilms in vivo: A roadmap for Enterococci.

Current Opinion in Microbiology 53:9-18.



Matysik A, Ho FK, Tan AQL, Vajjala A and Kline KA.
Cellular chaining influences biofilm formation and structure in Group A Streptococcus
Biofilm. doi: 10.1016/j.bioflm.2019.100013



Kao PHN and Kline KA.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide: How Enterococcus faecalis Subverts the Host Immune Response to Cause Infection

Journal of Molecular Biology. Jul 26;431(16):2932-2945.




Matysik A and Kline KA.
Streptococcus pyogenes capsule promotes microcolony-independent biofilm formation

Journal of Bacteriology. Sep 15;201(18).


Vajjala A, Biswas D, Chong KKL, Tay WH, Hanski E, Kline KA.
Streptolysin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes group A streptococcal in vivo biofilm formation and necrotizing fasciitis
Cellular Microbiology. Jan;21(1):e12956.


Volume 17 Issue 2

Ch’ng JH, Chong KKL, Lam LN, Wong JJ, Kline KA.
Biofilm-associated infection by Enterococci

Nature Reviews Microbiology. Jan;17(2):82-94.  doi: 10.1038/s41579-018-0107-z.





Antonoplis AS, Zang X, Huttner MA, Chong K, Bin LY, Co J, Amieva MR, Kline KA, Wender PA, Cegelski L.
A dual function antibiotic-transporter conjugate exhibits superior activity in sterilizing MRSA biofilms and killing persister cells

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nov 28;140(47):16140-16151.



Afonina I, Lim XN, Tan R, Kline KA. 
Planktonic interference and biofilm alliance between aggregation substance and endocarditis and biofilm associated pili in Enterococcus faecalis


Lim K, Saravanan R, Chong KKL, Goh SHM, Chua RRY, Tambyah PA, Chang MW, Kline KA, Leong SSJ.
Anhydrous polymer-based catheter coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation and delivery of antimicrobial peptide

Biotechnology & Bioengineering. 17 April. doi: 10.1002/bit/26713.






Keogh D#, Lam LN#, Doyle L, Matysik A, Pavagadhi S, Umashankar S, Dale JL, Song Y, Ng SP, Boothroyd CB, Dunny GM, Swarup S, Williams RBH, Marsili E, Kline KA. #Co-authors.
Extracellular Electron Transfer Powers Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Metabolism
mBio. 10 April 2018 vol. 9 no. 2e00626-17


Chilambi GS, Gao IH, Yoon BK, Park S, Kawakami LM, Rafikumar V, Chan-Park MB, Cho N-J, Bazan GC, Kline KA, Rice SA, Hinks J.
Membrane adaptation limitations in Enterococcus faecalis underlie sensitivity and the inability to develop significant resistance to conjugated oligoelectrolytes 

RSC Advances 2018 8, 10284-10293




Zhou C, Wu Y, Thappeta KRV, Subramanian J, Pranantyo D, Kang ET, Duan H, Kline KA, Chan-Park MB.
In vivo anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial non-leachable coating thermally polymerized on cylindrical catheter

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017 Oct 4. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b07053.


Chong K#, Tay WH#, Janela B, Yong AMH, Liew TH, Madden L, Keogh D, Barkham T, Ginhoux F, Becker D, Kline KA#Co-authors.
Enterococcus faecalis modulates immune activation and slows healing during wound infection.
Journal of Infectious Disease. 2017 Dec 19;216(12):1644-1654


Rashid R and Kline KA.
Wrecking Staph’s rafts: S. aureus no longer unsinkable?
Cell Chemical Biology 24:845–857


Tien BYK#, Chong KKL#, Goh HMS#, Bhaduri-Tagore S#, Holec S, Dress R, Ginhoux F, Ingersoll MA, Williams RBH, Kline KA.
Enterococcus faecalis promotes innate immune suppression and polymicrobial catheter-associated urinary tract infection.
Infection & Immunity. December 2017; 85:12 14 




Bossa L, Kline KA, McDougald D, Bonne BSL, Rice SA.

Urinary catheter-associated microbiota change in accordance with treatment and infection status.

PLoS One 12(6): e0177633.




Rashid R#, Gassiot AC#, Gao IH, Nair ZJ, Kumar JK, Gao L, Kline KA*, Wenk M*.
#Co-authors. *Corresponding authors.

Comprehensive Analysis of Phospholipids and Glycerolipids in the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis.

PLoS One. 12(4): e0175886.



Goh HMS, Yong MHA, Chong KKL, Kline KA.
Model systems for the study of Enterococcal colonization and infection.
Virulence Jan 19:0. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1279766. [Epub ahead of print]




Keogh D, Tay WH, Ho YY, Dale JL, Chen S, Umashankar S, Williams RBH, Chen SL, Dunny GM, Kline KA.
Enterococcal Metabolite Cues Facilitate Interspecies Niche Modulation and Polymicrobial Infection
Cell Host & Microbe. 20(4):493-503.

[Link to commentary]



Rousseau M*, Goh S*, Holec S, Albert MA, Williams RBH, Ingersoll MA#, Kline KA#.
*equal contribution, #corresponding authors
Bladder catheterization increases susceptibility to infection that can be prevented by prophylactic antibiotic treatment.
JCI Insight. 1(15):e88178.


Rashid R, Veleba M, Kline KA.
Focal targeting of the bacterial envelope by antimicrobial peptides.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. June 7; 4:55.





Tay WH*, Chong K*, Kline KA. (2016) *equal contribution
Polymicrobial-Host Interactions during Infection.
Journal of Molecular Biology. pii: S0022-2836(16)30144-9.

Mitra SD*, Afonina I*, Kline KA. *equal contribution
Right place, right time: focalization of membrane proteins in Gram-positive bacteria.
Trends in Microbiology. Aug;24(8):611-21.



Kline KA*, Bowdish DME*. (2016) *corresponding authors
Infection in an Aging Population.
Current Opinion in Microbiology. 29:63–67

Kline KA*, Lewis AL*. (2016) *corresponding authors
Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract
Microbiology Spectrum. 4(2): doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0012-2012



Wang Y, Ahmed ED, Li P, Oh B, Guo Z, Khin MM, Vikhe Y, Want J, Hu R, Boom R, Kline KA, Becker D, Duan H, Chan-Park M.
High Perforamce Capacative Deionization Disinfection (CDID) of Wather with Graphene-Oxide-graft-Quaternized Chitosan Nanohybrid Electrode Coating.
ACS Nanotechnology, 9(10):10142-57


Kline KA*, Schwartz DJ, Gilbert NM, and Lewis AL*. (2014) *corresponding authors
Impact of host age and parity on susceptibility to severe urinary tract infection in a murine model.
PLoS One 10.1371/journal.pone.0097798.


Kandaswamy K, Liew TH, Wang CY, Huston-Warren E, Meyer-Hoffert U, Hultenby K, Schroeder JM, Caparon MG, Normark S, Henriques-Normark B, Hultgren SJ, and Kline KA.
Focal targeting by human beta defensin 2 disrupts localized virulence factor assembly in Enterococcus faecalis.
PNAS 110(50):20230-20235.

Korte-Berwanger M, Sakinc T, Kline KA, Nielsen HV, and Hultgren SJ, and Gatermann S.
Significance of the D-serine-deaminase and D-serine metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for virulence.
Infection and Immunity 81(12):4525-4533.

Nielsen HV, Flores-Mireles AL, Kau AL, Kline KA, Pinkner JS, Neiers F, Normark S, Henriques-Normark B, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ.
Pilin and sortase residues critical for endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus biogenesis in Enterococcus faecalis.
Journal of Bacteriology 195(19):4484-4495.


Kline KA, Schwartz DJ, Gilbert NM, Hultgren SJ. Lewis AL.
Immune modulation by Group B Streptococcus influences host susceptibility to urinary tract infection by uropathogenic E. coli.
Infection and Immunity 80(12):418604194.

Nielsen HV, Guiton PS, Kline KA, Port GC, Pinkner JS, Neiers F, Normark S, Henriques-Normark B, Caparon MG, Hultren SJ.
MIDAS motif of the Enterococcus faecalis EbpA pilin mediates pilus function in catheter-associated urinary tract infection.
mBio Jul 24;3(4). pii: e00177-12. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00177-12.


Guiton PS, Cusumano CK, Kline KA, Dodson KW, Han Z, Janetka JW, Henderson JP, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ.
Combination small molecule therapy prevents uropathogenic Escherichia coli catheter-associated urinary tract infections in mice.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56(9):4738-4745





Maddalo G, Chovanec P, Stenberg-Bruzell F, Nielsen HV, Jensen-Seaman MI, Ilag LL, Kline KA, Daley DO.
A reference map of the membrane proteome of Enterococcus faecalis.
Proteomics 11:3935-41.


Kline KA, Schwartz DJ, Lewis W, Hultgren SJ, and Lewis AL.
Immune activation and suppression by Group B Streptococcus in a murine model of urinary tract infection.
Infection and Immunity 79:3588-95.



Kline KA, Ingersoll MA, Nielsen HV, Sakinc T, Henriques-Normark B, Gatermann S, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ.
Characterization of a novel murine model of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infection reveals roles for Ssp and SdrI in virulence.
Infection and Immunity 78:1943-51

Kline KA, Dodson K, Caparon MG, Hultgren SJ.
A tale of two pili: assembly and function of pili in bacteria.
Trends in Microbiology 18:224-32.



Guiton PS, Hung CS, Kline KA, Roth R , Kau AL, Hayes E, Heuser J, Dodson KW, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ.
Contribution of autolysin and sortase A during Enterococcus faecalis DNA-dependent biofilm development.
Infection and Immunity 77:3626-38.


Kline KA, Fälker S, Dahlberg S, Normark S, Henriques-Normark, B.
Bacterial adhesins in host-microbe interactions.
Cell Host and Microbe 5:580-592.


Kline KA*, Kau AL*, Chen SL, Lim A, Pinkner J, Rosch J, Beatty W, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE, Henriques-Normark B,, Caparon MG, and Hultgren SJ. (2009) *contributed equally
Mechanism for sortase localization and the role of sortase localization in efficient pilus assembly in Enterococcus faecalis.
Journal of Bacteriology 191:3237-47.



Ingersoll MA, Kline KA, Nielsen HV, Hultgren SJ.
G-CSF induction early in uropathogenic E. coli infection of the urinary tract modulates host immunity.
Cellular Microbiology 10:2568-2578.


Rosen DA*, Hung CS*, Kline KA, and Hultgren SJ. (2008) *contributed equally
A streptozocin-induced diabetic mouse model of urinary tract infection.
Infection and Immunity 76:4290-4298.



Kline KA*, Criss AK*, Wallace A, and Seifert HS. (2007) *contributed equally
Transposon mutagenesis identifies sites upstream of the  Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilE gene that modulate pilin antigenic variation.
Journal of Bacteriology 189:3462-3470.



Sechman EV, Kline KA, and Seifert HS.
Loss of both Holliday Junction processing pathways is synthetically lethal in the presence of gonococcal pilin antigenic variation.
Molecular Microbiology 61:185-193.



Kline KA and Seifert HS. (2005)
Mutation of the PriA gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae affects DNA transformation and DNA repair.
Journal of Bacteriology 187:5347-5355.


Criss AK, Kline KA, and Seifert HS. (2005)
The frequency and rate of pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Molecular Microbiology 58:510-519.


Kline KA and Seifert HS. (2005)
Role of the Rep helicase gene in homologous recombinationin Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Journal of Bacteriology 187:2903-2907.




Long CD, Tobiason DT, Lazio M, Kline KA, Seifert HS.
Low level pilin expression allows for substantial DNA transformation competence in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Infection & Immunity 71:6279-91.


Kline KA, Sechman EV, Skaar EP, Seifert HS.
Recombination, repair and replication in the pathogenic Neisseriae: the 3 R’s of molecular genetics of two human-specific bacterial pathogens.
Molecular Microbiology 50:3-13.



Kadekoppala M, Kline K, Akompong T, Haldar K. (2000)
Stable expression of a new, chimeric fluorescent reporter in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
Infection & Immunity 68: 2328-32.



Speck P, Kline KA, Cheresh P, Longnecker R. (1999)
Epstein-Barr virus lacking latent membrane protein 2 immortalizes B cells with efficiency indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus.
Journal of General Virology 80: 2193-2203.